India’s fertility rates drops below replacement level

The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) is a large-scale, multi-round survey conducted in a representative sample of households throughout India. It is seen that fertility rate in India has dropped from 2.2 in 2015-16 to 2.0 in 2021.  According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) which is released by Union Health Ministry, all Phase 2 states have achieved replacement level of fertility (2.1) except Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, and Uttar Pradesh. According to this survey, it is noticed that use of modern methods of contraceptives has increased significantly in almost all states and union territories. The Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has increased substantially from 54% to 67% at all-India level and in almost all Phase-II States and Union territories with an exception of Punjab. For the first time, more than half of the children and women were found to be anaemic, according to the phase-II report of National Family Health Survey (NFHS). As per the United states’ population division this figure is below replacement fertility of 2.1. This data suggests that this generation is not producing enough children to replace themselves which would lead to a total reduction of population in future. As per the survey there are only 5 states in India with total fertility rate above 2 and those states are Bihar with highest fertility rate of 3, Meghalaya with 2.9, Uttar Pradesh with 2.4, Jharkhand with 2.3 and Manipur with 2.2. The First Phase of the 2019-20 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) had also shown a decline in Total Fertility Rates (TFR) and the replacement level of fertility was achieved in 19 out of 22 states.